Not a registered user? REGISTER

Nurse Practitioner Healthcare Foundation

Continuing Education Program


Behavioral Strategies Toolkit (PDF)

Patient Stages of Change (Trans-Theoretical Model) (PDF)

Fagerstrom’s Test for Nicotine Dependence

PHQ9 Depression Screener

3-question Brief Action Plan for Motivational Interviewing

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy resource

UCSF Rx For Change program

CDC Office on Smoking and Health

Burden of Tobacco Use in the U.S. (Discussed in Expert Clinical Insights)

Disparities in Cigarette Smoking Among Ethnic Populations in the US

The Brief Tobacco Intervention: 2 As and an R

Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids

AAFP Tobacco and Nicotine Cessation Toolkit

Full version of Pharmacologic Product Guide (Figure 8)

US Preventive Services Task Force/Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guideline

Florida Area Health Education Center Network Resources

Tobacco Free Nurses Resources


  1. World Health Organization. Tobacco Fact Sheet. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2017.
  2. Jha P, Ramasundarahettige C, Landsman V, et al. 21st century hazards of smoking and benefits of cessation in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:341–50.
  3. Fiore MC, Jaén CR, Baker TB, et al. Treating tobacco use and dependence: 2008 update US Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guideline executive summary. Respir Care. 2008;53(9):1217-22.
  4. World Health Organization. WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2015.
  5. Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids. Broken Promises to Our Children: The 1998 State Tobacco Settlement 17 Years Later. Washington, DC: Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids; 2016.
  6. Centers for Disease Control. CDC Fact Sheet – Fast Facts – Smoking & Tobacco Use, 2017. https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/fast_facts/.
  7. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking: 50 Years of Progress. A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2014.
  8. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking: Nicotine Addiction. A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 1988. DHHS Publication No. (CDC) 88-8406.
  9. Benowitz NL, Lake T, Keller KH, Lee BL. Prolonged absorption with development of tolerance to toxic effects after cutaneous exposure to nicotine. Clin Pharm Ther 1987;42(1):119–20.
  10. Okamoto M, Kita T, Okuda H, Nakashima T. Tolerance to the convulsions induced by daily nicotine treatment in rats. Jap J Pharmacol 1992; 59(4):449–55.
  11. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.
  12. Gotti C, Zoli M, Clementi F. Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: native subtypes and their relevance. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2006;27(9):482–91.
  13. Eisch AJ, Harburg GC. Opiates, psychostimulants, and adult hippocampal neurogenesis: insights for addiction and stem cell biology. Hippocampus. 2006:16:271–286.
  14. Floresco SB, Ghods-Sharifi S. Amygdala-prefrontal cortical circuitry regulates effort-based decision making. Cereb Cortex. 2007:17:251–260.
  15. Balfour DJ. The neurobiology of tobacco dependence: a preclinical perspective on the role of the dopamine projections to the nucleus accumbens [corrected]. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004;6(6):899–912.
  16. Henningfield JE, Hatsukami DK, Zeller M, Peters E. Conference on abuse liability and appeal of tobacco products: conclusions and recommendations. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011;116(1):1–7.
  17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and productivity losses--United States, 2000-2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008; 57:1226.
  18. Kar D, Gillies C, Zaccardi F, et al. Relationship of cardiometabolic parameters in non-smokers, current smokers, and quitters in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2016;15:158.
  19. Willi C, Bodenmann P, Ghali WA, Faris PD, Cornuz J. Active smoking and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2007;298(22): 2654–64.
  20. Inzucchi SE, Bergenstal RM, Buse JB, et al. Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, 2015: a patient-centered approach: update to a position statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2015;38(1):140-9.
  21. Morrow JD, Frei B, Longmire AW, et al. Increase in circulating products of lipid peroxidation (F2-isoprostanes) in smokers. Smoking as a cause of oxidative damage. N Engl J Med. 1995;332(18):1198–203.
  22. Potenza MA, Gagliardi S, Nacci C, Carratu’ MR, Montagnani M. Endothelial dysfunction in diabetes: from mechanisms to therapeutic targets. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(1):94–112.
  23. Arnson Y, Shoenfeld Y, Amital H. Effects of tobacco smoke on immunity, inflammation and autoimmunity. J Autoimmun. 2010;34(3):J258–J65.
  24. Canoy D, Wareham N, Luben R, et al. Cigarette smoking and fat distribution in 21,828 British men and women: a population-based study. Obesity. 2005;13(8):1466–75
  25. Sherman JJ. The impact of smoking and quitting smoking on patients with diabetes. Diabetes Spectr. 2005;18(4):202–8
  26. Missouri Department of Health & Senior Services. Community Health Improvement Resources. Intervention MICA: Tobacco Prevention in Different Populations: Racial and ethnic minorities. http://health.mo.gov/data/interventionmica/Tobacco/minorities.html.
  27. Chaiton M, Diemert L, Cohen JE, et al. Estimating the number of quit attempts it takes to quit smoking successfully in a longitudinal cohort of smokers. BMJ Open. 2016;6(6):e011045
  28. Babb S, Malarcher A, Schauer G, et al. Quitting smoking among adults – United States, 2000-2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017;65:1457–1464.
  29. Jamal A, King BA, Neff LJ, et al. Current cigarette smoking among adults – United States, 2005–2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016; 65(44):1205–1211.
  30. Suls JM, Luger TM, Curry SJ, et al. Efficacy of smoking-cessation interventions for young adults: a meta-analysis. Am J Prev Med. 2012;42(6):655–662.
  31. Stead LF, Koilpillai P, Lancaster T. Additional behavioural support as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(10):CD009670.
  32. West R, Raw M, McNeill A, et al. Health-care interventions to promote and assist tobacco cessation: a review of efficacy, effectiveness and affordability for use in national guideline development. Addiction. 2015;110(9):1388–1403.
  33. DiClemente CC, Jordan L, Marinilli A, Nidecker M. Psychotherapy in alcoholism treatment. In: Johnson B, Ruiz P, Galanter M, eds. Handbook of Clinical Alcoholism Treatment. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2003:102–110.
  34. DiClemente CC, Schlundt D, Gemmell L. Readiness and stages of change in addiction treatment. Am J Addict. 2004;13:103-119.
  35. Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC, Norcross JC. In search of how people change. applications to addictive behaviors. Am Psychol. 1992;47:1102-14.
  36. Festinger L. A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press; 1957.
  37. Jamal A, Dube SR, Malarcher AM, Shaw L, Engstrom MC. Tobacco use screening and counseling during physician office visits among adults — National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Health Interview Survey, United States, 2005–2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012;61:38–45.
  38. Kasza KA, Ambrose BK, Conway KP, et al. Tobacco-product use by adults and youths in the United States in 2013 and 2014. N Engl J Med. 2017;376(4):342-353.
  39. Heatherton TF, Kozlowski LT, Frecker RC, Fagerström KO. The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence: a revision of the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire. Br J Addict. 1991;86(9):1119-1127.
  40. Williams FR, Blum A, Forbes B, Sharp L, Steward DE. Adult smoking cessation strategies: a rural healthcare CE initiative. Am J Nurse Pract. 2008;12:44-52.
  41. Strong DR, Pearson J, Ehlke S, et al. Indicators of dependence for different types of tobacco product users: descriptive findings from Wave 1 (2013-2014) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) study. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017;178:257-266.
  42. DiClemente CC, Prochaska JO, Fairhurst SK, Velicer WF, Velasquez MM, Rossi JS. The process of smoking cessation: an analysis of precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages of change. Consult Clin Psychol. 1991;59(2):295-304.
  43. Cahill K, Lancaster T, Green N. Stage-based interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;10:CD004492.
  44. Weiss RD. Adherence to pharmacotherapy in patients with alcohol and opioid dependence. Addiction. 2004;99:1382–1392.
  45. Clark HK, Ringwalt CL, Shamblen SR. Predicting adolescent substance use: the effects of depressed mood and positive expectancies. Addict Behav. 2011;36:488–493.
  46. Glassman AH, Covey LS, Stetner F, Rivelli S. Smoking cessation and the course of major depression: a follow-up study. Lancet. 2001;357(9272):1929-1932.
  47. Fu SS, Partin MR, Snyder A, et al. Promoting repeat tobacco dependence treatment: are relapsed smokers interested? Am J Manag Care. 2006;12(4):235-243.
  48. Miller W, Rollnick S. Motivational Interviewing: Helping People Change. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 2013.
  49. Brief Action Planning. Comprehensive Motivational Interventions website. http://www.comprehensivemi.com/about/brief-action-planning.
  50. Lindson-Hawley N, Thompson TP, Begh R. Motivational interviewing for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(3):CD006936.
  51. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Record Smoking Status: Meaningful Use Core Measure 5. Issued October 2012. https://www.cms.gov/Regulations-and-Guidance/Legislation/EHRIncentivePrograms/downloads/Stage2_EPCore_5_RecordSmokingStatus.pdf.
  52. Beck JS. Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Basics and Beyond. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 2011.
  53. O'Connell KA, Gerkovich MM, Cook MR, Shiffman S, Hickcox M, Kakolewski KE. Coping in real time: using Ecological Momentary Assessment techniques to assess coping with the urge to smoke. Res Nurs Health. 1998;21(6):487-497.
  54. Stead LF, Carroll AJ, Lancaster T. Group behaviour therapy programmes for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;3:CD001007.
  55. Stead LF, Hartmann-Boyce J, Perera R, Lancaster T. Telephone counselling for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;8:CD002850.
  56. Miller N, Frieden TR, Liu SY, et al. Effectiveness of a large-scale distribution programme of free nicotine patches: a prospective evaluation. Lancet. 2005;365:1849-1854.
  57. Neri AJ, Behnoosh BR, Thompson TD, et al. Use and Effectiveness of quitlines versus web-based tobacco cessation interventions among 4 state tobacco control programs. Cancer. 2016;122:1126-1133.
  58. Ubhi HK, Kotz D, Michie S, et al. Comparative analysis of smoking cessation smartphone applications available in 2012 versus 2014. Addict Behav. 2016;58:175-181.
  59. Ramo DE, Thrul J, Chavez K, et al. Feasibility and quit rates of the Tobacco Status Project: a Facebook smoking cessation intervention for young adults. J Med Internet Res. 2015;17(12):e291.
  60. Pechmann C, Delucchi K, Lakon CM, Prochaska JJ. Randomised controlled trial evaluation of Tweet2Quit: a social network quit-smoking intervention. Tob Control. 2017;26:188-194.
  61. Whittaker R, Borland R, Bullen C, et al. Mobile phone-based interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;4:CD006611.
  62. American Academy of Family Physicians. Pharmacologic Product Guide; Tobacco and Nicotine Cessation Toolkit. Updated December 2016. http://www.aafp.org/dam/AAFP/documents/patient_care/tobacco/pharmacologic-guide.pdf.
  63. Siu AL, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Behavioral and pharmacotherapy interventions for tobacco smoking cessation in adults, including pregnant women: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2015; 163:622-634.
  64. Rigotti NA. Clinical practice. Treatment of tobacco use and dependence. N Engl J Med. 2002; 346:506-512.
  65. Hartmann-Boyce J, Aveyard P. Drugs for smoking cessation. BMJ. 2016;352:i571.
  66. Schnoll RA, Patterson F, Wileyto EP, et al. Effectiveness of extended-duration transdermal nicotine therapy: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2010;152(3):144-151.
  67. Schnoll RA, Goelz PM, Veluz-Wilkins A, et al. Long-term nicotine replacement therapy: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2015;175(4):504-511.
  68. Daughton DM, Heatley SA, Prendergast JJ, et al. Effect of transdermal nicotine delivery as an adjunct to low-intervention smoking cessation therapy. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Arch Intern Med. 1991;151(4):749-752.
  69. Fishbein L, O'Brien P, Hutson A, et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of nicotine nasal spray devices on cardiovascular and pulmonary function. J Investig Med. 2000;48:435-440.
  70. Prochnow, JA. E-cigarettes: a practical evidence-based guide for advanced practice nurses. J Nurse Pract. 2017;13:449-455.
  71. Hays JT, Ebbert JO. Varenicline for tobacco dependence. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(19):2018-2024.
  72. Hajek P, McRobbie HJ, Myers KE, Stapleton J, Dhanji AR. Use of varenicline for 4 weeks before quitting smoking: decrease in ad lib smoking and increase in smoking cessation rates. Arch Intern Med. 2011;171(8):770-777.
  73. Ebbert JO, Hughes JR, West RJ, et al. Effect of varenicline on smoking cessation through smoking reduction: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015; 313(7):687-694.
  74. Anthenelli RM, Benowitz NL, West R, et al. Neuropsychiatric safety and efficacy of varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine patch in smokers with and without psychiatric disorders (EAGLES): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Lancet 2016;387(10037):2507-2520.
  75. Farley AC, Hajek P, Lycett D, Aveyard P. Interventions for preventing weight gain after smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;1:CD006219.
  76. Ciraulo DA, Dong Q, Silverman BL, Gastfriend DR, Pettinati HM. Early treatment response in alcohol dependence with extended-release naltrexone. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;69:190-195.
  77. Parsons A, Shraim M, Inglis J, Aveyard P, Hajek P. Interventions for preventing weight gain after smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;CD006219.